Appropriating the human body as an input device is appealing not only because we have roughly two square meters of external surface area, but also because much of it is easily accessible by our hands e. Based on pilot data collection, we selected a different set of resonant frequencies for each sensor package. This program performed three key functions. Appropriating the Body as an Input Surface Devices with significant computational power and capabilities can now be easily carried on our bodies. Although simple, this heuristic proved to be highly robust, mainly due to the extreme noise suppression provided by sensing approach. For example, we can readily flick each of our fingers, touch the tip of our nose, and clap our hands together without visual assistance.
Few external input devices can claim this accurate, eyes-free input characteristic and provide such a large interaction area. Help Center Find new research papers in: These are normalized by the highest-amplitude FFT value found on any channel. However, these transducers were engineered for very different applications than measuring acoustics transmitted through the human body. These longitudinal compressive waves travel through the soft tissues of the arm, exciting the bone, which is much less deformable then the soft tissue but can respond to mechanical excitation by rotating and translating as a rigid body. After an input has been segmented, the waveforms are analyzed. Third, it classified these input instances.
The audio stream was segmented into individual taps using an absolute exponential average of all ten channels. Second, it segmented inputs from the data stream into independent instances taps. Among the acoustic energy transmitted through the arm, the most readily visible are transverse waves, created by the displacement of the skin from a finger impact Figure 2.
Brute force machine learning approach is employed, computing features in total, many of which are derived combinatorially.
For example, Scratch Input is technique that allows a small mobile device to turn tables on which it rests into a gestural finger input canvas. Thus, the skin stretch induced by many routine movements e. This search revealed one plausible, although irregular, layout with high accuracy at six input locations.
Roughly pape, higher frequencies propagate more readily through bone than through soft tissue, and bone conduction carries energy over larger distances than soft tissue conduction. Moving the sensor above the elbow reduced accuracy to After an input has been segmented, desearch waveforms are analyzed.
Speech input is a logical choice for always- available input, but is limited in its precision in unpredictable acoustic environments, and suffers from privacy and scalability issues in shared environments.
(DOC) SKINPUT TECHNOLOGY | Sai Dheeraj Reddy –
However, tables are not always present, and in a mobile context, users are unlikely to want to carry appropriated surfaces with them at this point, one might as well just have a larger device. We collect these signals using a novel paaper of sensors worn as an armband.
These are normalized by the highest-amplitude FFT value found on any channel. Although simple, this heuristic proved to be highly robust, mainly due to the extreme noise suppression provided by sensing approach.
The below- elbow placement performed the best, posting a So in a few years time, with Skinput, computing is always available: Devices with significant computational power and capabilities can now be easily carried on our bodies.
Appropriating the reseaech body as an input device is appealing not only because we have roughly zkinput square meters of external surface area, but also because much of it is easily accessible by our hands e. Thus sminput sensors in this category were not especially sensitive to lower-frequency signals e.
These features are generally subconsciously driven and cannot be controlled with sufficient precision for direct input. Each location thus provided slightly different acoustic coverage and information, helpful in disambiguating input location.
I am very grateful to Prof. Furthermore, proprioception our sense of how our body is configured in three-dimensional space allows us to accurately reseagch with our bodies in an eyes-free manner.
One option is to opportunistically appropriate surface area from the environment for interactive purposes.
Skinput: appropriating the body as an input surface
To overcome these challenges, the idea of a single sensing element with a flat response curve, to an array of highly tuned vibration sensors was dropped. Any interactive features bound to that event are fired. When the sensor was placed below the elbow, on the forearm, one package was located near the Radius, the bone that runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist, and the other near the Ulna, which runs parallel to this on the medial side of the arm closest to the body.
A point FFT for all ten channels, although only the lower ten values are used representing the acoustic reaearch from 0Hz to Hzresearcg features. Our approach is also inspired by systems that leverage acoustic transmission through non-body sskinput surfaces.
This approach is feasible, but suffers from serious occlusion and accuracy limitations. However, their small size typically leads to limited interaction space e. The highly discrete nature of taps i. For example, describes a technique that allows skniput small mobile device to turn tables on which it rests into a gestural finger input canvas. There has been less work relating to the intersection of finger input and biological signals.